青山T/Gセミナー

GMAT sentence correction





GMAT sc 正解と解法のテクニック

参考:The Elements of Style (解法に必要なほぼすべての鍵は、この1918年発行の小冊子にあります。大切なのは、その適用力です)


本気にやりたい方は→
GMAT 7 Week's Wonder
 

Directions:  Choose the best way to express the part in the bracket. (A is the same as the one in the bracket)

 

Gsc1-15 ■ 181112mon(one, a week!)

A summary of both the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the victimization reports for the last decade [show that while the number of] police reports of serious crime has risen steadily, the number of victims of crime remains about the same.

 

(A) show that while the number of

 

(B) show while

 

(C) shows that while

 

(D) shows while the number of

 

(E) shows that while the number of

1 s/p(trick: N of both→is)

2 p(number)

3 dic(thatなしx)

4 that(mm防止系)

解答

[A] 1

[B] 123

[C] 2

[D] 34

[E]

Gsc1-14 181105mon (one, a week!)

The tissues of the human body are constantly moistened by a briny solution thought [to be of about the same salinity as the primordial sea from which] life emerged.

 

(A) to be of about the same salinity as the primordial sea from which

 

(B) of as about the same salinity like the primordial sea out of which

 

(C) to be about the same salinity as the primordial sea from where

 

(D) of as about the same salinity as the primordial sea from where

 

(E) to be of about the same salinity like the primordial sea from which

1 the same as(like xx)

2 from where xx

3 dic(be of抽象名詞=属性)

解答

[A]

[B] 13

[C] 2

[D] 23

[E] 1

Gsc1-13■181029mon■(one, a week!)

[Etruscan women did not take their husband's name, as Roman women did], but retained her own through life.

 

(A) Etruscan women did not take their husband's name, as Roman women did

 

(B) Etruscan women did not take their husbands' names, as Roman women did

 

(C) Etruscan women did not take a husband's name, as did a Roman woman

 

(D) Unlike a Roman woman, an Etruscan woman did not take her husband's name

 

(E) Unlike Roman women, Etruscan women did not take their husbands' names


★ s/p 後ろのher

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E]

Gsc1-11■181022mon■(one, a week!)

The newspaper story accurately recounted the history of the colonial [mansion, that it contained thirteen rooms, and that it had a reputation for being a haunted house].

 

(A) mansion, that it contained thirteen rooms, and that it had a reputation for being a haunted house

 

(B) mansion, that it contained thirteen rooms, and that it had a reputation of being haunted

 

(C) mansion, that the mansion contained thirteen rooms, and said that it had a reputation for being haunted

 

(D) mansion, said that it contained thirteen rooms and had a reputation for being a haunted house

 

(E) mansion and said that the mansion contained thirteen rooms and had the reputation of being haunted

1 あいまいit

2 p(A, B, and C)

3 dic(famous系誤用:for=

be famous for one's talent→beingは意味x)

解答

[A] 123

[B] 12

[C] 2

[D] 12

[E]


Gsc1-10■181015mon■(one, a week!)

[ Although the Arabs in Israel are allowed to vote in Israeli elections, only about ten percent do so ].

 

(A) Although the Arabs in Israel are allowed to vote in Israeli elections, only about ten percent do so.

 

(B) Although it is allowed, only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections.

 

(C) Even though they are allowed to do it, only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections.

 

(D) Only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections, despite being allowed to.

 

(E) Only about ten percent of the Arabs in Israel vote in Israeli elections, in spite of their being allowed to do so.

★ do so

1 despite being系 xx 句or節

2 ref(不明it)

解答

[A]

[B] 2

[C] 2

[D] 1

[E] 1

Gsc1-08■181008mon(one, a week!)

Since the 1940's the farms and ranches of the Great Plains have been supplied with water from the Ogallala aquifer; this underground reservoir contained an estimated quadrillion gallons of water, [which equal Lake Huron], but now reserves are becoming depleted.

 

(A) which equal Lake Huron

 

(B) which equal Lake Huron's

 

(C) equal to Lake Huron's

 

(D) the equivalent of Lake Huron's

 

(E) the equivalent of Lake Huron

1 dic (differ from(thanは節)

2 p/ref(those)(that)

3 cons(different→differ)

4 s/p

解答

[A] 1

[B] 24

[C]

[D] 12

[E] 3

Gsc1-07■181002tue■(one, a week!)

When doctors attempt to diagnose an illness, they look for ways in which the patient's symptoms resemble those of one disease and are different than those of another.

 

(A) and are different than those of another

 

(B) and differs from others

 

(C) and differ from those of others

 

(D) but are different than that of the other

 

(E) but are different from those of the others

1 dic (differ from(thanは節)

2 p/ref(those)(that)

3 cons(different→differ)

4 s/p

解答

[A] 1

[B] 24

[C]

[D] 12

[E] 3

Gsc1-06(one, a week!)■180926wed■

The price of rice, which was fourteen dollars a hundredweight in 1981, will plunge, so it is expected, to a mere seven or eight dollars this year.

 

(A) will plunge, so it is expected, to a mere

 

(B) will plunge, so the expectation is, to merely

 

(C) is to plunge, as expected, to merely

 

(D) is to plunge, as is expected, to a mere

 

(E) is expected to plunge to a mere

★ dic(be expected to)

dic(統計上merely→a mere)

cf

860114

861006(下線中)

910607merelyただし下線外

解答

[A]

[B]

[C]

[D]

[E] *

Gsc1-05 180918tue  (one, a week!)

Because timbers of ships were once used to make local houses, [you are able to still smell the tar of an old ship when one enters] a building along an estuary.

 

(A) you are able to still smell the tar of an old ship when one enters

 

(B) you can still smell the tar of an old ship when you enter

 

(C) one can still smell the tar of an old ship when you enter

 

(D) a person can still smell the tar of an old ship when they enter

 

(E) people are able to still smell the tar of an old ship when they are entering

1 ref(you one xx)

2 cons(able can)

解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 1

[D] 1

[E] 2

Gsc1-04 180911tue  (one, a week!)

[The economic problem Puerto Rico has is, properly characterized, a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it only was] aggravated when the massive influx of capital that took place under Operation Bootstrap resulted in a notable decline in the demand for labor.

 

(A) The economic problem Puerto Rico has is, properly characterized, a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it only was

 

(B) Properly characterized, the economic problem Peen Rico has is a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it only was

 

(C) The economic problem of Puerto Rico is properly characterized not as overpopulation but as a surplus of labor, which was only

 

(D) The economic problem of Puerto Rico is, properly characterized, a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, which only was

 

(E) Puerto Rico has, properly characterized, the economic problem of a surplus of labor, not overpopulation, and it was only

★ p(not as but as)

1 あいまいit

2 cons(has is?1つの品詞に!)

3  mm(,which)

解答

[A] 12

[B] 12

[C]

[D] 3

[E] 1

Gsc1-03 180904tue (one, a week!)

Mary Allenbee's lawyer decided that the names of those who received her large political contributions not to be revealed to the congressional investigators.

 

(A) the names of those who received her large political contributions not to be revealed

(B) the names of the recipients of her large political contributions would not be revealed

(C) the names of those who had received her large political contributions was not to be revealed

(D) there would be no revelation of the names of those recipients of her large political contributions

(E) the names of those who had received her large political contributions was not going to be revealed

1 gram(vなし)

2 cons(those who)

3 cons/cl(there?)

4 s/p

解答

[A] 12

[B]

[C] 24

[D] 3

[E] 24


Gsc1-02 180624mon (one, a week!)

The papers in the National Archives recounting the experiences of some 200,000 Black men who joined the Union forces during the Civil War have been prepared [to be published by] the historian Ira Berlin.

 

(A) to be published by

(B) for publication by

(C) for publishing by

(D) as the publication of

(E) for the publication by

★clarity

1 受動+to/to 受動△

cf require one to 受動x

cf dic be thought to etc

2 ing< N

3 cl内容(as?)

4 cl(the特定?


解答

[A] 1

[B]

[C] 2

[D] 3

[E] 4

Gsc1-01 180618

Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, [has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up] to 1980.

 

(A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up

(B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970 up

(C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970

(D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970

(E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970

 

解題

1 from up to xx

2 tense

3 類似表現rose/arose

4 cons adv系(with rapidity-rapidly)

5 cl(adj-v unchangeable-unchanged)

 

解答

[A] 12

[B] 13

[C] 45

[D] *

[E] 25

問題 GMATscn01


Einstein's theory of relativity holds that the gravity of a massive body deflects nearby light rays, observable when a star appears to undergo a shift in position while its light passes near the Sun.

(A) observable when a star appears to undergo a shift in position while

(B) which can be observed when a star appears to shift its position during the time

(C) an observable effect as a star appears to shift position when

(D) an effect observed as the appearance of a shift in the position of a star while

(E) an effect that can be observed when a star appears to shift position as



解題(下記番号順に消去)

A 2

B 1

C 4

D 3

E

 

わざ

1 関係代名詞whichの先行詞チェック→light rays。しかしlight rays先行詞内容としておかしい。

2 形容詞( observable)は分詞と同様、対象が曖昧なので、他に適切なものがない限り、選ばない。

3 as+N(名詞)は「〜として」ここでほしいのは、「〜つれて」のas(接続詞)。

4 接続詞asによる従属節があるが、その主節がない。これは典型的な「節vs句」のひっかけ。Ean effect that can be observedは、Can observable effectと比べると、一見conciseではない。でも節であることで、その先の従属節を正当化できる。首相がない場合は、conciseな句が勝つが、この場合のように、句だと文法上の役割不足で、長めの節が勝つ場合に注意。

正解は、E

 

一発切り

★同格は超強い!内容もチェックしながら、CDEに絞り、わざ3Dを、わざ4Cを切る。


 問題 GMATscn03

The pattern of economic crisis in the developing countries is ominously familiar to the occurrences in the industrial countries in the Great Depression.

(A) familiar to the occurrences

(B) reminiscent of what happened

(C) familiar to what happened

(D) similar with the occurrences

(E) reminiscent to what happened

 

解題

A 1

B 

C 1

D 2

E 3

わざ

1 familiar to one = one(人)にとって、(何かが)親しみ深い。意味がおかしい。

2 Dictionはそもそも、similar to。意味もずれる。

3 Dictionreminiscent of- 「〜を彷彿(と)させる」


一発切り

reminiscent of-は頻出Diction。内容も見て、一瞬で一発切り。

 問題 GMATscn04

Income tax indexing is intended to eliminate

constantly increasing taxes that result because of inflation pushing individuals into higher tax brackets.

 

(A) constantly increasing taxes that result because of inflation pushing individuals

(B) constant tax increase because inflation pushes individuals

(C) constantly increasing taxes because individuals are pushed by inflation

(D) constant tax increase that results as inflation pushes individuals

(E) constant tax increase as a result of individuals being pushed by inflation

 

解題

A 2

B 3

C 3

D 

E 1

 

わざ

1 concise (being x,文法上支障はないが、あえてconciseに逆行くするbeingを使う必然が必要)

2 phrase or clause (句の方が節よりもconciseだが、句の中に節的要素(動詞、現在分詞などのもと動詞)を入れるくらいなら、最初から節の方がいい)

3 clarity: becauseは従属節として、主節につくが、オリジナルのAより、その箇所は内容的に、前のtax相当名詞を修飾すべき。

 

一発切り

becauseは超強い。そしてbecause ofにまず勝ち目はない。だから、まずAを消し、BCに注目、Cは受け身なので消す。Ebeingで消す。CDを比べ、上記3の修飾対象の違いに着目。


 問題 GMATscn05

 If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would not generate blast, shock, or heat, but rather an intense electromagnetic pulse disrupting, like a lightning bolt, all unshielded electric lines and electronic equipment.

 

(A) If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would not generate ablast, shock, or heat, but rather

(B) If a nuclear weapon were to be detonated above the atmosphere, it would generate not ablast, shock, nor heat, but

(C) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would generate no blast, shock, or heat, but rather

(D) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would not generate a blast, shock, or heat, but rather

(E) A nuclear weapon detonated above the atmosphere would not generate a blast, shock,nor heat, but

 

解題

A 1

B 1 2

C 

D 1

E 1 2

 

わざ

1 concise (not a  no)

2 diction: norは1)neither-nor、2)否定文, nor倒置文、のみ

 

一発切り

[If, it +V]S (If, itをまとめ) +V (SVα, and it +Vも同様)も使うとより確か。



 問題 GMATscn06

 

The architectural problem of how to enclose and articulate interior space becomes  more and more critical as the size of the space will increase.

 

(A) more and more critical as the size of the space will increase

(B) increasingly critical as the size of the space gets larger

(C) ever more critical as the size of the space increases

(D) one that is increasingly critical as there is an increase in the size of the space

(E) more critical with the size of the space getting larger

解題

A 1

B 3

C 

D 2

E 3

わざ

1 grammar: 時と条件の副詞節(as- 〜につれて)では未来のwillは現在形に。

2 concise: that isthere isconcise的に極力排除。

3 redundancy: size=大きさ、get larger=大きくなる。合わせて使うと意味の重複になる。

一発切り

increasingly, more and more, ever moreの対比でincreasinglyが正解になることは統計上まれ(この三者では、本来increasinglyが最もconciseなので、anomaly)という点も入れるとより確か。



 回答( A, B, C, D, E)、案、ご相談・質問は、ここに!
本気にやりたい方は→
GMAT 7 Week's Wonder

BACK to SC